Grammar: Gerunds After Prepositions

1. Gerund after prepositions that stand alone

  1. afterAfter having a shower, I waited for Steven.
  2. before: The tablet must not be taken before getting up in the morning.
  3. by: I manage it by working much longer than 40-hour weeks.
  4. in spite ofIn spite of studying a lot he didn’t pass the exams.
  5. on: What was her reaction on hearing the news?
  6. without: He told the joke without laughing.

2. Gerund after Adjective + Preposition

  1. afraid of: They are afraid of losing the match.
  2. angry about/at: Pat is angry about walking in the rain.
  3. bad at/good at: John is good at working in the garden.
  4. clever at: He is clever at skateboarding.
  5. crazy about: The girl is crazy about playing tennis.
  6. disappointed about/at: He is disappointed about seeing such a bad report.
  7. excited about: We are excited about making our own film.
  8. famous for: Sandy is famous for singing songs.
  9. fed up with: I’m fed up with being treated as a child.
  10. fond of: Hannah is fond of going to parties.
  11. glad about: She is glad about getting married again.
  12. happy about/at: The children are not happy about seeing a doctor.
  13. interested in: Are you interested in writing poems?
  14. keen on: Joe is keen on drawing.
  15. proud of: She is proud of riding a snowboard.
  16. sick of: We’re sick of sitting around like this.
  17. sorry about/for: He’s sorry for eating in the lesson.
  18. tired of: I’m tired of waiting for you.
  19. used to: She is used to smoking.
  20. worried about: I’m worried about making mistakes.

3. Gerund after Noun + Preposition

  1. advantage of: What is the advantage of farming over hunting?
  2. chance of: There’s a chance of catching a cold these days.
  3. choice between: There’s a choice between flying to London Heathrow or Stansted.
  4. danger of: Peggy is in danger of making a mistake.
  5. difficulty in: He has difficulty in texting.
  6. doubt about: He is in doubt about buying the correct software for his computer system.
  7. hope of: There’s little hope of catching the new Corvette.
  8. idea of: I like the idea of setting up a new email account.
  9. interest in: There’s no interest in writing letters.
  10. method of: This is a simple method of finding solutions.
  11. opportunity of: There’s some opportunity of bringing her parents together again.
  12. possibility of: These wheels offer the possibility of riding tubeless.
  13. problem of: He has the problem of swimming too slowly.
  14. reason for: There’s a real reason for winning the contest.
  15. risk of: There’s a risk of digging too deep.
  16. trouble for: He was in trouble for stealing.
  17. way of: This is a new way of building a wall.

4. Gerund after Verb + Preposition

  1. accuse of: They were accused of breaking into a shop.
  2. agree with: I agree with playing darts.
  3. apologize for: They apologize for being late.
  4. believe in: She doesn’t believe in getting lost in the wood.
  5. blame for: The reporter is blamed for writing bad stories.
  6. complain about: She complains about bullying.
  7. concentrate on: Do you concentrate on reading or writing?
  8. congratulate sb. on: I wanted to congratulate you on making such a good speech.
  9. cope with: He is not sure how to cope with getting older.
  10. decide against: They decided against stealing the car.
  11. depend on: Success may depend on becoming more patient.
  12. dream about/of: Sue dreams of being a pop star.
  13. feel like: They feel like going to bed.
  14. get used to: You must get used to working long hours.
  15. insist on: The girls insisted on going out with Mark.
  16. look forward to: I’m looking forward to seeing you soon.
  17. prevent (somebody) from (something): How can I prevent Kate from working in this shop?
  18. rely on (something): He doesn’t rely on winning in the casino.
  19. succeed in: How then can I succeed in studying chemistry?
  20. specialize in: The firm specialized in designing websites.
  21. stop (somebody) from: I stopped Andrew from smoking.
  22. talk about/of: They often talk about travelling to New Zealand.
  23. think about/of: Frank thinks of playing chess.
  24. warn (somebody) against: We warned them against using this computer.
  25. worry about: The patient worries about having the check-up.

Vocabulary: Compound Nouns

What is a Compound Noun?

Compound nouns are words for people, animals, places, things, or ideas, made up of two or more words. Most compound nouns are made with nouns that have been modified by adjectives or other nouns.

In many compound nouns, the first word describes or modifies the second word, giving us insight into what kind of thing an item is, or providing us with clues about the item’s purpose. The second word usually identifies the item.

Compound nouns are sometimes one word, like toothpaste, haircut, or bedroom. These are often referred to as closed or solid compound nouns.

Sometimes compound nouns are connected with a hyphen: dry-cleaning, daughter-in-law, and well-being are some examples of hyphenated compound nouns.

Sometimes compound nouns appear as two separate words: full moon, Christmas tree, and swimming pool are some examples of compound nouns that are formed with two separate words. These are often referred to as open or spaced compound nouns.

 

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Compound Noun Examples

The more you read and write, the more compound noun examples you’ll encounter. The following sentences are just a few examples of compound nouns.

 

Compound nouns can be made with two nouns:

  • Let’s just wait at this bus stop.
  • I love watching fireflies on warm summer nights.
  • While you’re at the store, please pick up some toothpaste, a six-pack of ginger ale, and some egg rolls.

 

Compound nouns can be made with an adjective and a noun:

  • Let’s watch the full moon come up over the mountain.
  • Please erase the blackboard for me.

 

Compound nouns can be made with a verb and a noun:

  • Be sure to add bleach to the washing machine.
  • Let’s be sure to stay somewhere with a swimming pool.

 

Compound nouns can be made with a noun and a verb:

  • He always gets up before sunrise.
  • I really could use an updated hairstyle.

 

Compound nouns can be made with a verb and a preposition:

  • Checkout is at noon.
  • Please remember to schedule your dog’s annual check-up.

 

Compound nouns can be made with a noun and a prepositional phrase:

  • My mother-in-law is the kindest person I know.

 

Compound nouns can be made with a preposition and a noun:

  • Do you believe in past lives?
  • This city is vibrant, so it’s hard to believe it has a thriving criminal underworld.

 

Compound nouns can be made with a noun and an adjective:

  • We need a truckful of mulch for the garden.

 

RELATED ACTIVITIES

Choose the word that makes each of these nouns into a compound noun.

    1. Fund __________ (A – driver, B – seat, C – raiser)
    2. News __________ (A– paper, B – story, C – travels)
    3. Sun ____________ (A– day, B – glasses, C – heat)
    4. Child ___________ (A – hood, B – ren, C – play)
    5. Door ___________ (A– frame, B – handle, C – way)

Fill in the blanks to complete each compound noun, or with the one-word compound noun that fits best.

  1. Prevent a heart _________ by eating properly and getting enough exercise. (A – stroke, B –attack, C – murmur)
  2. Do you prefer peppermint or cinnamon flavored _____________? (A– cookies, B – toothpaste, C – applesauce)
  3. The full ___________ looked enormous as it rose over the horizon. (A – moon, B – sun, C –sunset)
  4. I’m going to the barber for a _____________. (A – trim, B – new style, C – haircut)
  5. They’re digging a new swimming ____________ in the park. (A – suit, B – pool, C – game)
  6. I’d love to learn to pilot an ____________(A–boat, B – airplane, C – submarine)
  7. One reason donuts are fattening is that they’re fried in cooking _____. (A – oil, B – sugar, C –pans)
  8. Sherrie is upset because she lost an ______________. (A – input, B – earring, C – friendship)
  9. We put a ____________ in the garden to chase birds away.(A – runway, B – sunshade, C –scarecrow)
  10. 15.I’ve got to pick up a package at the post ___________. (A – man, B – office, C – book)

 

 


 

 

 

Answer Key: 1 – C, 2 – A, 3 – B, 4 – A, 5 – C

Answer Key: 6 – B, 7 – B, 8 – A, 9 – C, 10 – B, 11 – B, 12 – A, 13 – B, 14 – C, 15 – B

 

 

Original content from gingersoftware.com

 

 

Vocab: Especially or specially?

Especially and specially are adverbs.

Especially means ‘particularly’ or ‘above all’:

  • She loves flowers, especially roses.
  • I am especially grateful to all my family and friends who supported me.

Not: Especially I am

We use specially to talk about the unique (not ordinary) purpose of something:

  • This kitchen was specially designed to make it easy for a disabled person to use.
  • He has his shirts made specially for him by a tailor in London.

Especially can also be used to mean ‘for a particular purpose’:

  • I bought these (e)specially for you.

 

Associated Exercises:

 

 

 


Original Content from: http://dictionary.cambridge.org/grammar/english-grammar-today/

Making A Business Presentation in English

eye-contact2This outline provides a guide to giving a business presentation in English.

Each section begins with the presentation section concerned, then the language formulas appropriate to giving a presentation.

Finally, each section has important points to keep in mind during the presentation.


Opening Statements

  • First of all, I’d like to thank you all for coming here today.
  • My name is X and I am the (your position) at (your company).

Try to make eye contact with everyone you are speaking to if possible. You can also smile at individual members of the audience to put them at their ease.

  • I’d briefly like to take you through today’s presentation.
  • First, we’re going to …
  • After that, we’ll be taking a look at …
  • Once we’ve identified our challenges we will be able to …
  • Finally, I’ll outline what …

Make sure to indicate each point on your presentation as you introduce each topic. This can be done with a slide (Power Point) presentation, or by pointing to each point on the display device you are using.

Asking for Questions

  • Please feel free to interrupt me with any questions you may have during the presentation.
  • I’d like to ask you to keep any questions you may have for the end of the presentation.

You can also request the participants to leave questions to the end of the presentation. However, it is important to let participants know that you are willing to answer any questions they may have.


Presenting the Current Situation

  • I’d like to begin by outlining our present situation.
  • As you know …
  • You may not know that …

As you know‘ or ‘You may not know that’ are polite ways of informing those who don’t know without offending those who do know certain facts.


Moving Forward

  • Let’s take a look at some of the implications of this.
  • Taking into consideration what we have said about X, we can see that Y …
  • The main reason for these actions is …
  • We have to keep in mind that … when we consider …
  • As a result of X, Y will …

As you continue through the presentation, often remind the listeners of the relationship between the current subject and what has been said before during the presentation.


Using Visual Aids

  • As you can see from this graph representing …
  • If you could just take a look at …
  • Looking at X we can see that …

Use visual aids to emphasise your main points in a conversation. Fewer visual aids that are meaningful leave a stronger impression than using a lot of visual aids that might also confuse listeners.


Mentioning Problems

  • Obviously, this has led to some problems with …
  • Unfortunately, this means that …
  • As a direct result of X, we are having problems with Y…
  • This also causes …

Always provide examples of evidence to prove your point.


Listing Options

Always provide examples of evidence to prove your point.

  • There are a number of alternatives in this case. We can …
  • If we had … , we would …
  • Had we … , we could have … Do we need to X or Y?
  • I think we can clearly see that we can either … or …
  • We have been considering …
  • What if we …

Use the second conditional form to consider present options:

  • If we were doing this now, we would be making more sales very soon.

Use the third conditional for considering different outcomes based on past actions:

  • If the company hadn’t released this on time, there would have been major repercussions.

Proposing a Solution

  • The solution to X is …
  • I suggest we …
  • Based on … the answer is to …
  • If we keep in mind that … , Y is the best solution to our problem.

When providing your solutions to various problems, remember to refer to the evidence that you have previously presented. Try to make your solution a clear answer to what has been discussed during the presentation.

  • So, how does this all relate to X?
  • How long will this take to implement?
  • How much is this all going to cost?

Use questions to introduce concerns that you know the listeners will have. Answer these questions clearly and efficiently.


Summarising – Finishing the Presentation

  • We’ve discussed many points today. Let me quickly summarize the principal points:
  • I’d like to quickly go over the main points of today’s topic:
  • Before we end, let me briefly recap what we have discussed here today.

It is important to repeat the main points of your presentation quickly. This recap should be brief and, if possible, using different vocabulary than that used during the presentation.

Make sure to focus only on the most important areas of the presentation.

  • Thank you all very much for taking the time to listen to this presentation. Now, if you have any questions, I’d be happy to answer them.
  • I think that’s about it. I’d like to thank you all for coming in today. Do you have any questions?

Make sure to thank everybody and leave the discussion open for further questions from participants.

Grammar: Modal Verbs – Would

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A piece of wood

“Would” (pronounced “wood”) is most commonly used to create conditional verb forms. It also serves as the past form of the modal verb “will.”

Additionally, “would” can indicate repetition in the past (although “used to” is a more commonly-used structure).

For more information on the grammar behind the modal verb “would,” visit the following tutorials: Conditional Tutorial, Future in the Past, Would Have or Will Have? and Would Always.

 

Examples:

  • If he were an actor, he would be in adventure movies. conditional
  • I knew that she would be very successful in her career. past of “will”
  • When they first met, they would always have picnics on the beach. repetition


Using “Would” in Present, Past, and Future

Modal Use

Positive Forms

Used in Past, Present and Future

Negative Forms
Used in Past, Present and Future
In Conditional Structures

1. If I were president, I would cut the cost of education.

2. If I had been president, I would have cut the cost of education.

3. If I were elected president next year, I would cut the cost of education.

 

1. If I were president, I would not raise taxes.

2. If I had been president, I would not have raised taxes.

3. If I were president, I would not sign the tax increase next week.

Would as
Past of “will”

I said I would help you.

He told me he would be here before 8:00.

 

I said I wouldn’t help you.

He told me he would not be here before 8:00.

Would (or Used To)
Describing Repetition in Past

When I was a kid, I would always go to the beach.

When he was young, he would always do his homework.

When I was a kid, I wouldn’t go into the water by myself.

When he got older, he would never do his homework.

 

EXERCISES AND RELATED TOPICS

 

Original material from English Page

Vocab: The Most Important Irregular Past Verbs (44)

Although most verbs in English are not irregular, the most important verbs that you will use everyday are.

 

The List of 44 Verbs

Download, print  and complete this PDF to begin studying these verbs.

 

Practice.. and Practice Again..

Use the flashcards and test exercises below to practise the verbs. Repetition is the secret to success with this area of English.

Test Yourself

Some more advanced exercises to practice the Irregular Past Simple

And some exercises to practice the Irregular Past Participles

Grammar: So or Such

The following is a mini-tutorial on the use of “so” and “such.” After you have studied the tutorial, complete the associated exercises. If you already know how to use “so” and “such,” you can skip the explanation and go directly to the exercises.


So + Adjective

“So” can be combined with adjectives to show extremes. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • The music is so loud! I wish they would turn it down.
  • The meal was so good! It was worth the money.

..with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show extremes which lead to certain results. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • The music is so loud that I can’t sleep.
  • The music is so loud I can’t sleep.
  • The meal was so good that we decided to have dinner at the same restaurant again tonight.
  • The meal was so good we decided to have dinner at the same restaurant again tonight.

So + Adverb

“So” can be combined with adverbs to show extreme actions. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • She spoke so quickly! She sounded like an auctioneer.
  • He paints so well! I am sure he is going to become a famous artist.

.. with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show extreme actions which lead to certain results. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • She spoke so quickly that I couldn’t understand her.
  • She spoke so quickly I couldn’t understand her.
  • He paints so well that they offered him a scholarship at an art school in Paris.
  • He paints so well they offered him a scholarship at an art school in Paris.

So + Many / Few + Plural Noun

“So” can be combined with “many” or “few” plus a plural noun to show extremes in amount. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • I never knew you had so many brothers!
  • She has so few friends! It’s really quite sad.

.. with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show extremes in amount which lead to certain results. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • I never knew you had so many brothers that you had to share a bedroom.
  • I never knew you had so many brothers you had to share a bedroom.
  • She has so few friends that she rarely gets out of the house.
  • She has so few friends she rarely gets out of the house.

So + Much / Little + Non-countable Noun

“So” can be combined with “much” or “little” plus a non-countable noun to show extremes in amount. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • Jake earns so much money! And he still has trouble paying the rent.
  • They have so little food! We need to do something to help them.

.. with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show extremes in amount which lead to certain results. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • Jake earns so much money that he has lost all sense of what a dollar is worth.
  • Jake earns so much money he has lost all sense of what a dollar is worth.
  • They have so little food that they are starving to death.
  • They have so little food they are starving to death.

So + Much / Little / Often / Rarely

“So” can be combined with words like “much,” “little,” “often,” or “rarely” to describe how much or how often someone does an action. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • Earl drinks so much! It’s not good for his health.
  • My sister visits us so rarely! I really miss her.

.. with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show the results of extreme actions. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • Earl drinks so much that it is starting to interfere with his work.
  • Earl drinks so much it is starting to interfere with his work.
  • My sister visits us so rarely that my kids wouldn’t even recognize her.
  • My sister visits us so rarely my kids wouldn’t even recognize her.

Such + Adjective + Noun

“Such” can be combined with an adjective and a noun to show extremes. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • Don has such a big house! I think it’s a little ridiculous.
  • Shelly has such beautiful eyes! I have never seen that shade of blue before.

.. with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show extremes which lead to certain results. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • Don has such a big house that I actually got lost on the way to the bathroom.
  • Don has such a big house I actually got lost on the way to the bathroom.
  • Shelly has such beautiful eyes that she got a job as a make-up model.
  • Shelly has such beautiful eyes she got a job as a make-up model.

NOTE

Remember that without the noun you need to use “so.”

Examples:

  • such beautiful eyes that
  • so beautiful that

Such + Judgemental Noun

“Such” can also be combined with judgemental nouns for emphasis. This form is often used in exclamations.

Examples:

  • He is such an idiot! He says the stupidest things.
  • She is such a genius! We could never do this work without her.

.. with “That”

The above form can be combined with “that” to show certain results. The “that” is usually optional.

Examples:

  • He is such an idiot that nobody would hire him.
  • He is such an idiot nobody would hire him.
  • She is such a genius that they immediately gave her a position at the university.
  • She is such a genius they immediately gave her a position at the university.

Such + Noun (This type of…)

“Such” can also mean “this type of…” or “that type of…”

Examples:

  • The archeologist had never seen such writing before he discovered the tablet.
    this/that type of writing
  • She usually doesn’t receive such criticism.
    this/that kind of criticism
  • Frank has never made such mistakes before.
    these/those kinds of mistakes

RELATED EXERCISES

 

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